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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Literary Theory: Approaches, Scholars, Terms. IRENA R. MAKARYK General Editor and Compiler. Series: Theory / Culture.
Table of contents
They have also ence and Literary Hermeneutics. Theory and History modified and refined their theoretical positions of Literature 3. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, on the basis of this criticism. But the cost of Konstan- surrounding the emergence of reception the- zer Universitatsreden Konstanz: Universitats- ory. Both Jauss and Iser subsequently took verlag, Frankfurt: ential work. Increasingly Iser has concerned Suhrkamp, Hermeneutics and ], develops a more Naumann, Manfred. Gesellschaft - Literatur - Lesen: Literaturrezep- cation' essay. This work, however, has had a tion in theoretischer Sicht.
Weimar: Aufbau, Text als Handlung: Perspektiven the early The Constance School, on the einer systematischen Literaturwissenschaft. Munich: other hand, has survived the demise of its Fink, The meet- tional Texts. Susan R. Suleiman ['Poetics and Hermeneutics'], so important for and Inge Crosman.
Princeton: Princeton UP, , the advent of reception theory, continue to Warning, Rainer, ed. Rezeptionsasthetik: Theorie und produce exciting contributions of literary, cul- Praxis. Weimann, Robert. The Act of Offentlichkeit. Robert Weimann. Baltimore: Mitteldeutscher Verlag, , Weinrich, Harald. Wirkungsbedingung literarischer Prosa. Konstanz: G. Hess, Burger, Peter. Fish, Stanley. Concepts and the Imaginary. The Re- 11 New York: St. Martin's P, damentally from their predecessors on two ac- , Rezeptionsgeschichte: Grundlegung deformation in literature, that is, of radical einer Theorie.
Sozialgeschichte und Wir- comprehensibility of content and opposed kungsasthetik: Dokumente zur empirischen und marxistischen Rezeptionsforschung. Frankfurt: Ath- LEF's postulate of documentary literature, the enaum, Instead, they Holub, Robert C. Reception Theory: A Critical Intro- defended the integrity of content and the ne- duction.
English Language and Literature
London: Methuen, Schillergesellschaft 7 : In programmatic statements made in the Solms, Wilhelm, and Norbert Scholl. Fried- to themselves as modern heirs to the 19th- rich Nemec and Wilhelm Solms. Munich: Fink, century 'Westernizers' who fought Russian ' Zimmermann, Bernhard. Literaturrezeption im histo- backwardness and isolation from the rest of rischen Prozess: Zur Theorie einer Rezeptionsge- Europe.
If proletarian writers claimed to repre- schichte der Literatur. Munich: Beck, Constructivism Constructivism perceived culture as an all- embracing and comprehensive phenomenon, Literary constructivism in Russia began with penetrating all spheres of human existence and the Literaturnyi tsentr konstruktivistov [Literary activity. Hence, literary constructivists fostered Centre of Constructivists], established in The the genre of poetry, followed by drama and first official manifesto was published in the then prose.
Thematically, the literature of con- pages of LEF in The understanding of structivism tended to raise issues related to the creative activity by literary constructivists dif- Revolution, the importance of technological fered considerably from that of their counter- progress, and the place of the intelligentsia parts in other branches of art: they opposed in the process of industrial production. While trying to create the image of a proaches to artistic creativity as represented, business-like protagonist, constructivists did for example, by A.
Gan in his book Konstruk- not avoid moral questions and their assess- tivizm [Constructivism ]. Its main theoreti- ment of the Revolution was not always credu- cians were Ilia Sel'vinskii, Kornelii Zelinskii, lous or flattering. The most prominent writer Valentin Asmus, and Aleksandr Kviatkovskii. Sel'vinskii also showed a strong Among the multiplicity of diverse artistic interest in theoretical problems and formulated groupings of Soviet Russia in the , con- the concept of 'double realism': the manner in structivists stressed that theirs was the "'litera- which an aesthetic idea is shaped, its material ture of the technological age, a kind of homo- organized and perceived.
Realism did not nec- logue to scientific discoveries of the 2oth essarily mean a 'truthful reflection of life' century. This is probably why constructivists because it allowed the writer a subjective were sometimes mistakenly viewed as not interpretation of the external world. Conse- more than an offshoot of futurism and its early quently, Selvinskii formulated double realism Soviet continuation - the Left Front of Art. He clearly distanced himself from 19th- kept in mind that constructivists differed fun- century realism with its developed 'sense of.
If 19th-century realism was gov- which can be accomplished through narrative erned by the rule of expediency, then double and plot.
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Double realism is neither a rep- presented their own definition of literature and etition of past artistic models nor a simple the literary work of art. In Poeziia kak smysl mimetic 'reflection of reality' as advocated by [Poetry as Sense], Zelinskii argued for poetry as Marxists. The term assumes the fullest possible a fulfilment of both formal and semantic func- freedom of the writer's perception of the world tions. In Tskus- artistic creative deformation.
Good literary practice continuous renewal of literary form and its ar- rested on four basic principles: i the seman- tistic devices.
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See also "formalism, Russian. These principles were di- must be subjected to rational organization. For for example, in the experimental devices of him, the most important, determinant factor in futurism. The existence of always expresses some prime ideological, poetry is conditioned by the constant struggle philosophical, political, or ethical idea.
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See with sense. Poetry wants to subjugate life by "ideology. Although a literary work of art endowing it with sense because there is an op- evokes ambiguity and may provoke a multi- position between the sense of word and the tude of interpretations, it remains subordinated sense of outer reality. Poetry does not 'reflect' to one organizing thought. The contrasting forces that stand in the 'weight' of meaning. The text must be 'loaded' poet's way as impediments to expression are with meaning and the theme exploited to the the outer world of objects and the word. Both utmost.
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The concept of local semantics meant these worlds stand in opposition not only to a particular interpretation of what is known in the writer but also in relation to each other. Thus if a poet composes a 'word' as the main bearer of sense.
caupecseodoconf.tk Zelinskii poem about miners and their work, the poet differentiated between 'sense' and 'meaning' of ought to find the right words for example, the word: meaning is the more important, for from their technical language which would be it also functions as the bearer of 'sense. The fourth principle ments an inner orientation or intention to de- calling for the introduction of epic elements in- note it. This process is accompanied by new to poetry followed the constructivist insistence forms which are conditioned bv what Zelinskii.
Unfortunately, tion; in fact, it is marked by a certain absurd- their most interesting theoretical statements ity, a break or jump in logic. This break, that of the late coincided with the growing is, the destruction of the logic of old form to- bureaucratization and dogmatism of Soviet gether with the discovery of new innumerable cultural life.
In the spring of the most designations and meanings, is defined by prominent Constructivists Zelinskii, Inber, Zelinskii as the logical or verbal quantum. In Sel'vinskii formed the Brigade M i which was this process 'word' plays a crucial role, but it incorporated into the main organization of is conditioned by various factors and cannot proletarian writers - RAPP Russian Association be recognized as a direct expression of what of Proletarian Writers , a compromise which we want to say or designate.
Under the um- duced the notion of sensing word [osmyslenn- brella of a proletarian organization, the con- noe slovo]. If the function of thought is to structivists hoped to survive, at least for a designate singular units of sense, then the role time. However, pressure grew and criticism of logic consists of linking these units into remained unabated. Towards the end of larger and purposeful entities. This process of the group ceased to exist, although its writers 'constructing' such entities does not proceed and critics continued to participate in Soviet without resistance.
It is opposed by two forces: literary life throughout the thirties, forties and on the one hand, word is an unsteady value, fifties by accepting and practising the theoreti- constantly changing in its semantic quality cal tenets of socialist realism. Russicher Konstruktivismus.
Wiesbaden: utterances. The word, then, is at the same time Otto Harrassowitz, Mozejko, E. Heier, G. Luckyj, and G. Schaar- their most important aesthetic principle, con- schmidt. Ottawa: U of Ottawa P, , Twurczosc Ilji Sielwinskiego na tie teorii sion.